Scientific Literature: White Papers, Publications and Guidelines


Stay up to date with the latest developments in the fields of oral health and oral care, with a focus on interdental cleaning and the link between oral and systemic health. Benefit from white papers, literature summaries and a selection of peer-reviewed clinical publications and treatment guidelines.


White papers and clinical summary tables


Diabetes, gum health and periodontal disease: state of the evidence on the bidirectional link

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Interdental cleaning to prevent and treat gum disease: state of the evidence

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A brief guide to oral hygiene randomized controlled studies (RCTS)

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Selected peer-reviewed publications

This RCT by Professor Graziani and his team set out to determine the efficacy of 4 different oral hygiene regimens in young subjects with intact interdental papilla and found (inter alia) that the use of interdental picks was associated with reduced interdental FMBS when compared to flossing (P < .05).

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Dr Dagmar Slot and her team in Amsterdam designed an RCT to compare the efficacy of interdental picks (“rubber bristles interdental cleaner” or RBIC in her paper) compared to an interdental brush (IDB) in reducing gingivitis. A secondary objective was to evaluate participants' attitudes and possible side effects. The authors concluded that in accessible sites, the interdental pick (RBIC), in conjunction with manual toothbrushing, was found to be more effective in reducing gingival inflammation after 4 weeks compared to toothbrush and IDBs. The interdental pick (RBIC) caused less abrasion of the gingiva and was appreciated more by the participants.

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Pauline Imai at the University of British Columbia reported on the secondary outcomes of a RCT comparing interdental brush to dental floss and found that compliance with interdental cleaning is clearly associated with perceptions of ease of use and motivation. Additionally, patients were more than twice as likely to “strongly agree” that interdental brush was easy to use compared to flossing.

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Treatment guidelines

The European Federation of Periodontology (EFP) has for the first time issued clinical practice guideline for treatment of stage I–III periodontitis. The guidelines were produced with the support of 15 specifically commissioned systematic reviews and benefit from recommendations by leading experts and a broad base of stakeholders.

Click here to review the guidelines